Metal Casting versus Forging Comparison Chart

Metal Casting versus Forging Comparison Chart PDF Download PDF
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There are many things to explore when choosing among a forging or casting process for your metal product(s). The chart below is intended to be used as a general guideline and should not be considered as 100% accurate information that cannot be deviated beyond what is listed in the table. All data is relative and may change based on your specific needs. For example, the "cost per piece" may be higher during a high volume production run due to the increased labor requirement. However, the "cost per piece" may actually be lower during a small volume production run after taking into account the cost of the tooling itself.

Size Range Surface Texture Tooling Cost Tolerances / Reproducibility (refer to DCTG table) Cost per Piece Potential for Internal Defects Suited for High Volume Production Processes ability to handle complex designs Wide Range of Alloy Materials Used
Metal Forging Processes Open Die 1 LB - 1000 LBS Smooth HIGHER Approx. ±0.17" MEDIUM LOW GOOD GOOD BEST
Closed Die < 200 LBS Smooth HIGHER Approx. ±0.065" MEDIUM LOW BEST GOOD BEST
Metal Casting Processes Green Sand Mold 1 LB - 2000 LBS Rough LOWER DCTG 11 - DCTG 14 HIGHER MEDIUM FAIR BEST BEST
No-Bake Mold 1 LB - 10000 LBS Smooth MEDIUM DCTG 3 to DCTG 8 MEDIUM MEDIUM GOOD GOOD BEST
Resin Shell Mold 1 LB - 10000 LBS Smooth HIGHER DCTG 8 - DCTG 12 MEDIUM LOW FAIR GOOD BEST
Permanent Mold 1 LB - 100 LBS Fine MEDIUM DCTG 3 to DCTG 8 MEDIUM LOW GOOD GOOD GOOD
Die Cast Approx. 75 LBS MAX Fine HIGHER DCTG 3 to DCTG 8 LOWER HIGH BEST FAIR FAIR
Investment Cast
(lost wax)
Approx. 75 LBS MAX Fine MEDIUM DCTG 3 to DCTG 8 HIGHER MEDIUM FAIR BEST BEST
Expandable Pattern
(lost foam)
1 LB - 1000 LBS Smooth LOWER DCTG 8 - DCTG 12 MEDIUM HIGH GOOD GOOD GOOD
Vacuum ("V") Process Mold 1 LB - 2000 LBS Fine MEDIUM DCTG 8 - DCTG 12 HIGHER LOW FAIR GOOD GOOD
Centrifugal Mold 1 LB - 100 LBS Fine MEDIUM DCTG 8 - DCTG 12 MEDIUM LOW BEST FAIR GOOD

* Dimensions in millimeters

Linear Dimensional Tolerance for Dimensional Casting Tolerance Grade (DCTG) per ISO 8062-3: 2007(E)
Nominal dimensions related to the moulded part DCTG 1 DCTG 2 DCTG 3 DCTG 4 DCTG 5 DCTG 6 DCTG 7 DCTG 8 DCTG 9 DCTG 10 DCTG 11 DCTG 12 DCTG 13 DCTG 14 DCTG 15
- ≤ 10 0.09 0.13 0.18 0.26 0.36 0.52 0.74 1 1.5 2 2.8 4.2 - - -
> 10 ≤ 16 0.1 0.14 0.2 0.28 0.38 0.54 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3 4.4 - - -
> 16 ≤ 25 0.11 0.15 0.22 0.3 0.42 0.58 0.82 1.2 1.7 2.4 3.2 4.6 6 8 10
> 25 ≤ 40 0.12 0.17 0.24 0.32 0.46 0.64 0.9 1.3 1.8 2.6 3.6 5 7 9 11
> 40 ≤ 63 0.13 0.18 0.26 0.36 0.5 0.7 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 10 12
> 63 ≤ 100 0.14 0.2 0.28 0.4 0.56 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.4 6 9 11 14
> 100 ≤ 160 0.15 0.22 0.3 0.44 0.62 0.88 1.2 1.8 2.5 3.6 5 7 10 12 16
> 160 ≤ 250 - 0.24 0.34 0.5 0.7 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 5.6 8 11 14 18
> 250 ≤ 400 - - 0.4 0.56 0.78 1.1 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.4 6.2 9 12 16 20
> 400 ≤ 630 - - - 0.64 0.9 1.2 1.8 2.6 3.6 5 7 10 14 18 22
> 630 ≤ 1000 - - - - 1 1.4 2 2.8 4 6 8 11 16 20 25
> 1000 ≤ 1600 - - - - - 1.6 2.2 3.2 4.6 7 9 13 18 23 29
> 1600 ≤ 2500 - - - - - - 2.6 3.8 5.4 8 10 15 21 26 33
> 2500 ≤ 4000 - - - - - - - 4.4 6.2 9 12 17 24 30 38
> 4000 ≤ 6300 - - - - - - - - 7 10 14 20 28 35 44
> 6300 ≤ 10000 - - - - - - - - - 11 16 23 32 40 50
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